Stomatitis is actually the name for a symptom and not for a specific disease. The doctor speaks of "stomatitis" when the oral mucosa is inflamed. "Stoma" is the Latin word for "mouth". There may be a variety of causes for this and treatment will depend on the exact conditions for the oral mucositis.

If there is a simultaneous inflammation of the gums, it is the symptom "gingivostomatitis" (lat. Gingiva = gum). A sole inflammation of the gums, however, the doctor would call "gingivitis". Depending on the cause, gingivitis may be the cause of stomatitis or gingivostomatitis.

Overview of this article

Causes of Stomatitis

Causes of Stomatitis

The possible causes of stomatitis are quite different. They include:

  • a present viral disease, the herpes virus can lead to stomatitis aphthosa herpetic / gingivostomatitis herpetica,
  • side effects of medical measures and certain therapy (for example, chemo- and radiotherapy, psychotropic drugs, injections or infusions), which can cause iatrogenic stomatitis,
  • bacterial infections,
  • bone marrow transplants (acute graft-versus-host reaction),
  • present deficiencies,
  • fungal infections (stomatitis mycotica),
  • chronic diseases(eg diabetes mellitus),
  • intoxications
  • related to dental prostheses.

Two relatively common representatives of stomatitis are the so-called oral blight caused by herpesviruses (stomatitis aphthosa herpetica) and the denture stomatitis.

In the case of stomatitis, the large number of triggering factors means that these symptoms do not appear at all, or only rarely, when the accompanying circumstances are favorable for the person affected. It is generally worthwhile to pay attention to a healthy diet, good hygiene and dental care. Also sufficient exercise and recovery provide strong defenses.

General treatment of stomatitis

Since stomatitis can have many different causes, there are no universal recommendations for their medical treatment. In any case, the doctor is to be consulted for a clarification of the cause, but the treatment with prescription drugs is not necessary in every case. The therapies to be used depend on the subject and the causative background to the inflamed oral mucosa. Thus, in medicine, especially in stomatitis, a distinction is made according to their causes and course forms.

For severe stomatitis bed rest is recommended. As a food is liquid, after the first healing mushy food for the inflamed mouth area most beneficial. To alleviate the pain, rinse with lukewarm water or chamomile tea. It is not advisable to treat stomatitis without consulting the doctor with medication.

The herpes-related mouth rot

Causes of the herpes-related mouth rot is the virus of herpes simplex type 1 (HSC-1). In particular, in small children it may come at their initial infection with this herpes virus stomatitis aphthosa herpetic / gingivostomatitis herpetica. Occasionally, however, older children, adolescents and adults suffer from herpes-related oral blight.

Early symptoms can include:

  • fever,
  • chills,
  • headache and body aches and
  • fatigue symptoms may occur.

The actual herpes outbreak can affect a large part of the oral mucosa and therefore determines the symptoms. It comes to painful redness and herpes typical small blisters. They are filled with a clear or cloudy liquid; they burst open and form aphids. The mouth rot is associated with bad breath. During the course of the disease, swelling of the lymph nodes may occur, which is normal in infections and indicates the activity of the immune system. In particular, when the virus spreads into the pharynx, dysphagia may occur. Attention: The spread of the virus via the blood vessels in the entire body, the herpes sepsis, there is danger to life. If you suspect sepsis, do not hesitate to seek emergency medical help from a hospital.

For diagnosis, the oral cavity is examined; if necessary, a swab may be taken for an analysis procedure for the purpose of protection.

For infants, the oral blight is much more dangerous than for older children or adults. Infants and young children with stomatitis are in urgent need of medical care to get through the time of the illness. Care must also be taken to ensure that stomatitis does not lead to a shortage of food and fluids. Chewing and swallowing can be temporarily associated with great pain, and some children refuse to eat completely. If complications do not occur, stomatitis heals aphthosa herpetica after the early symptoms, the following week with a pronounced symptom pattern and a two- to three-week healing period.

Due to the risk of infection for others, the possible fever, the risk of sepsis and the pain, not only children but also adults should seek medical help. The doctor may prescribe antipyretic and analgesic medications.

Treatment of denture stomatitis

Treatment of denture stomatitis

Stomatitis can also be triggered by poorly fitting dentures. Often this is a stomatitis mycotica, caused by fungi, often by the yeast fungus Candida albicans. A once-well-fitting denture produces pressure points over time when the conditions of the jaw change. These ignite. Three forms of progression are distinguished:

  • The inflammation is locally limited to a smaller place.
  • Further redness indicates the involvement of the surrounding tissue.
  • The inflammation is extensive and causes plastic tissue changes such as nodules.

Denture stomatitis is treated by the dentist who can also examine the prosthesis and the cause of its poor fit. He also ensures hygienic measures and advises the patient to a proper care of the prosthesis, so their application causes no further health risks. For the treatment of stomatitis, the dentist may prescribe solutions for mouthwash, lozenges or other, depending on the cause.